You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page.
Turn on more accessible mode
Turn off more accessible mode
Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content
Turn off Animations
Turn on Animations
Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
To navigate through the Ribbon, use standard browser navigation keys. To skip between groups, use Ctrl+LEFT or Ctrl+RIGHT. To jump to the first Ribbon tab use Ctrl+[. To jump to the last selected command use Ctrl+]. To activate a command, use Enter.
Tab 1 of 3.
List Tools group. Tab 1 of 2.
List Tools group. Tab 2 of 2.
US Treaty Signers
Treaty Copies (pdf)
Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
Abbe, Samuel Badger
Samuel Badger Abbe's father was co-owner of the Camden and Amboy Railroad, and as a child Samuel rode on an excursion train, "the first passenger car in America." In 1849, he traveled by one of his father's ships to California to start a navigation business on the Sacramento River. Returning from a trip to the east to attend to his father's estate in the early 1850's, he "met with a severe accident" in St. Paul and remained there. In 1857, he was one of "fifty or sixty Democrats" who engineered the purchase of 50,000 acres at Fort Ripley for four cents per acre. In response to national outrage, the sale was annulled by the Secretary of War. He was a member of the Legislature, served as a delegate to Railroad and State Conventions, and laid out town sites. Abbe was a co-owner of the Mississippi River and Lake Superior Ship Canal Company, the Lake Superior and Crow Wing Railroad Company and the Nebraska and Lake Superior Railroad Company. He "caught a cold" while attending the Old Crossing Treaty, which caused his death. He was a member of the Cass/Kinzie kinship group.
Abbott, James Burnett
James Burnett Abbott attended school in Connecticut and New York, and taught school for two years before breaking his leg at age 18. Incapable of farm work, he entered a variety of trades (manufacturing shoes in Connecticut, pens in Cincinnati, pencil-cases, forks, spoons, and spectacles; electro-plating, and electro-typing). Eventually, he became "one of the first successful electro-platers in the United States." In 1854, he moved to Kansas with anti-slavery New England immigrants, and the next year was appointed an election judge, withdrawing when Missouri immigrants were given the right to vote. Abbott then joined a Free State militia and smuggled weapons into Kansas for the ensuing violence of "Bloody Kansas." From 1861 to 1866, he was Indian Agent to the Shawnee, organizing every adult Shawnee male into a Union military unit in 1864. He engaged in private business ventures such as the Leavenworth, De Soto, and Fort Scott Bridge Company and the Western Medical and Chemical Company, and was involved in questionable practices related to the sale of lands to settlers that had been reserved for Indigenous people in Kansas. Abbott served as a Kansas state senator from 1867 to 1868.
Abbott, Madison Fitz
Madison Fitz Abbott was appointed one of the "appraisers of goods and merchandise furnished for the use of the Indians" upon the signing of the Treaty of Chicago (1833). He died of cholera at the age of 25.
Samuel Abbot served in the Michigan militia in 1815, and in 1817 joined the American Fur Company. He was sent by Astor in 1822 to St. Louis to establish the Western Department of AFC, prior to its merger with the Chouteau family. He later returned to Mackinac where he served as justice of peace, notary public, probate court judge, collector of customs, and mayor. Abbott co-founded the Mackinac and Lake Superior Mining Company in 1848.
At age 17 James Abercrombie moved to Alabama, which was still part of Georgia. He served as a corporal in a Georgia militia cavalry unit during the War of 1812. In 1820, he began a 30-year career in the Alabama state legislature and became a captain in the Alabama militia. In the 1850s he was elected twice to the US House of Representatives. Subsequently, he moved to Florida and became a government brick contractor.
Abert, John J.
John J. Abert graduated from West Point in 1811 and immediately resigned his commission in the Army. For the next two years, he studied law while working in the War Office, and in 1813 began a law practice in Washington, DC. During the War of 1812 he rejoined the Army, establishing himself as a prominent topographical engineer in projects such as the construction of the Louisville Canal. In 1829, Abert became the first Chief of the Topographical Bureau in Washington. Beginning in the 1830s, he was appointed to oversee the removal of various American Indian tribes from lands east of the Mississippi, which included "conducting" emigrations by the Muscogee from the Southeast and the Wyandots from the Northeast.
Adair, William Irvine
William Irvine Adair served as a captain in a Kentucky infantry during the War of 1812, and moved to Alabama just as the area was admitted to the US as a State. In about 1819, he studied law and opened a practice in Huntsville, Alabama. There, he rose to prominence as a circuit court judge and member of the State legislature.
David Adams moved with his father to Shoulder Bone Creek in Georgia after participating in the Revolutionary War in South Carolina. There, he entered the Georgia militia, eventually receiving an appointment as Major General from the Georgia legislature. In this capacity, he took a leadership role in a "war of extermination" against the Muscogee. Adams served in the State legislature for 25 years.
Adams, Moses N.
Moses N. Adams graduated from Lane Theological Seminary in Ohio in 1848. He was a missionary at Lac qui Parle, Minnesota from 1848 to 1853, when he began a 7-year tenure as pastor at Traverse des Sioux. During the 1860s, he was the Minnesota agent for the American Bible Association. In 1871, Adams was appointed US Indian agent for the Dakota at Sisseton. During his four year tenure, he exacerbated tensions among reservation factions, favoring the "church party" over the "scout party" (a coalition of farmers and cultural traditionalists). His distribution of annuity payments in violation of treaty stipulations was a factor in this conflict. Eventually, his "autocratic and sometimes violent methods" alienated his superiors in the Presbyterian hierarchy. Adams was an army chaplain from 1876 to 1886, then returned as a missionary near the Sisseton Agency from 1887 to 1892. He later moved to St. Paul.
Thomas Adams was one of 18 hands selected by G. C. Sibley to accompany the 1825 survey of the Santa Fe Road.
Thomas Adams arrived in the West in 1853 as an artist and assistant in the military escort of Isaac Stevens. (Stevens was surveying a transcontinental railroad route on his way to an appointment as Governor of Washington Territory.) The next year, Stevens appointed Adams a special agent to the Flathead tribe, where he "gathered" tribal representatives for the Hell Gate treaty of 1855. Subsequently, Adams was involved in ranching, and also became a gold miner. (Adams and his partners made the first "gold strike" in Montana.) He moved to a farm in Maryland in 1864. Adams had a son with a Flathead woman and at one point he kidnapped the child, but later returned him to a passing band of Flatheads.
Aitkin, William A.
Willam A. Aitkin began a fur trading career at Mackinac with treaty signer John Drew. Later, in the employ of American Fur Company, he moved to Fond du Lac to clerk for treaty signer William Morrison. He gained prominence in the fur trade, establishing posts at Sandy Lake, Pembina, Rainy Lake and a site on Crow Wing River. Aitkin was fired for not turning over company funds received from an Ojibwe treaty for debts due the department; he later became an independent trader. He was a member of the Cass/Kinzie kinship group.
Albright, Amos F.
Amos F. Albright moved from Monroe County, New York to Ohio in 1832. In 1836, he became a millwright in Michigan, eventually acquiring land in Hartland, Michigan. He established a (financially unsuccessful) mill there, which he sold in 1841. In 1864, he appeared in Isabella County, Michigan as superintendent of Indian mills.
Alexander, George M.
George M. Alexander became sutler at Fort Union, New Mexico in 1856, supplying the fort with supplies. By 1859, Alexander rebuilt the sutler store and ran it as a hotel. After his replacement as sutler in 1859 (effective about a year later), he operated a ranch and dairy, continuing to supply meat and other provisions to the fort.
Alexander, J. L.
J. L. Alexander was a clerk assigned to the Creeks, and advocated for better rations on their forced relocation to the west. He was also a delegate to the 1867 Alabama constitutional convention, a requirement for the State's readmittance to the Union.
Alexander, Thomas L.
Thomas L. Alexander graduated from West Point in 1830 and spent the next four years at multiple posts, including Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; Rock Island, Illinois; in the Black Hawk War (where he fought at the Battle of Bad Axe); and back to Jefferson Barracks. From 1834 to 1838, he was aide-de-camp to General Atkinson at Fort Jackson, Louisiana. Between then and the US War with Mexico, Alexander fought in Seminole Wars in Florida; "transferred Indians;" and was stationed at forts in Indian Territory. Adams was breveted a major during the War with Mexico, in which he fought in several notable battles, and became a member of the Aztec Club. His subsequent service included "frontier duty" at Fort Atkinson, Kansas (1848-1849); Fort Snelling, Minnesota (1851-1853); and "recruiting service" during which he was promoted to major. He was deputy governor of the military asylum at Harrodsburg, Kentucky from 1854 to 1858 and lieutenant governor of the Soldiers' Home near Washington, DC from 1858 to 1864. Alexander retired from active service in 1863 as a lieutenant colonel. From 1864 to 1867, he was member of the Examining Board of Applicants for promotion in the army, and then served briefly on court martial duty.
Alexander, Walter B.
Walter B. Alexander arrived in St. Louis from Virginia as a "chief clerk for Col. Strothers." As a sub-Indian agent in the treaty-making bureaucracy of William Clark, his duties included signing licenses for traders. A member of the Masons of St. Louis (secretary in 1822 and scribe in 1823), he married Therese Pratte (becoming a member of the Chouteau/Clark kinship group). His brother-in-law, Lewis Bogy, would later become United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Alexander was succeeded in his position as sub-Indian agent by John Ruland.
Allen, Charles H.
Allen, Frank J.
After signing treaties at Castor Hill, Frank Allen was appointed Register in the land office in Jackson, Missouri. This location was at the center of one of the most productive mining regions in the country. During his tenure as Register (from at least 1834 to 1841), Allen became a director of the Mountain Iron Company, a local mining and railroad company.
James Allen was a cartographer with the 5th US Infantry, and accompanied Henry Schoolcraft's 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi. He was then assigned to Fort Dearborn (Chicago), where he superintended the construction of the harbor there. Allen later raised a company of Mormon volunteers for the Mexican War, but died en route to New Mexico.
Allen, John L.
John Allen moved to the Chickasaw Nation around 1810, in command of Fort Hampton in what is today Alabama. He was a sub-agent to the Chickasaw in 1816, and again in the 1830s. Allen was a postmaster in Henry County, Tennessee and ran a tavern in Pontotoc, Mississippi. His wife received land in one of the treaties to which he was signatory. Andrew Jackson provided funds in 1840 to purchase slaves "for the benefit" of Allen's wife.
Allen, John W.
John W. Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut. In 1825, he graduated from Harvard University, and moved to Clelveland and studied law under Samuel Cowles. In 1828, he petitioned Congress to improve Cleveland's harbor, and in 1831 through 1835, was elected to head the Board of Trustees of Cleveland. He was the editor of the local Whig Party newspaper, the Cleveland Advertiser. He served one year in the Ohio Senate in 1835 before being elected to the United States Congress where he served until 1841, when he was elected to serve a one year term as Cleveland's mayor. In 1854, Allen joined the newly created Republican Party and, under President Ulysses S. Grant, he served as the postmaster of Cleveland from 1870 to 1875. Besides a political career, Allen was heavily invested in the business community of Cleveland, and was on the board of directors of the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie from 1832 to 1842. He began investing in railroads, starting with the Cleveland & Newburgh Railroad in 1835, the Cleveland, Warren & Pittsburgh Railroad, and the Ohio Railroad in 1836, and the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad in 1845. He was appointed president of the Cleveland Insurance Company in 1849. Allen was a founder of Trinity Episcopal Church in Cleveland in 1828, and the Cleveland Lyceum in 1833. In 1879, he helped organize the Early Settlers Association of the Western Reserve.
In 1819, Orlando Allen moved to Buffalo, New York to study medicine. However, he was more interested in the business side rather than the patient side of medical practice. When his mentor, a Dr. Chapin, purchased a store, Allen was placed in charge of it. And the next year, he was sent to Detroit briefly to open another store for the partnership of Chapin and Pratt. By 1824, Allen was back in Buffalo earning one of the highest salaries in town to run the business, and in 1826, became a partner. In 1834, he entered politics, holding minor local offices, but was financially ruined in the Panic of 1836. In 1840, he succeeded his former partner, Hiram Pratt, as president of the Bank of Buffalo, and in 1848 he was elected mayor of Buffalo. Two years later, Allen became a member of the State legislature, securing a charter for the Western Saving Bank (for which he was a trustee). He also took an interest in the Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad, precursor to the Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia Railway. In 1852, Allen became a Member of the Council for the University of Buffalo, and in 1860, he was again elected to the state legislature.
Allen, Robert A.
Allen, William O.
William O. Allen was a lawyer in Virginia. He served as an army captain in the War of 1812, in Ohio, Michigan, and Canada. After the War, he was assigned to a post in Arkansas. In 1819 he resigned from the army, was elected to the Territorial legislature, and became the first brigadier general of the territorial militia. In 1820, he was killed by Robert Oden in a duel, following a dispute regarding Oden's cane. His estate included one slave.
Samuel Allinson moved to Virginia at an early age, and in 1794, was appointed an ensign in the 2nd sub-legion of the newly established US Army (or Legion). In 1796, he transferred to the 2nd Infantry, and in 1799, just prior to his death, he was commissioned a 1st lieutenant.
After working at a variety of trades, Samuel Allis, Jr. joined the Presbyterian Church in Ithaca, New York. In 1834, he joined Rev. John Dunbar on a trip west, intending to become a missionary to the Nez Perces. However, they missed their connection with traders in St. Louis, and Allis became a missionary to various tribes closer to that location. He spent time at Fort Leavenworth, and then moved to Bellevue, Nebraska, where he worked briefly with the Omahas, Otoes and Pawnees. Allis lived with the Pawnee Loups for 12 years, establishing a school on the Platte River. He advocated marriage among missionaries and Indigenous women, and also advocated the extinction of the Arikara tribe. As a treaty interpreter for the US he "aided in the acquisition of the Indian lands in Nebraska and Kansas." In 1851, Allis moved to St. Mary's, Iowa, and farmed for two years before returning permanently to Nebraska. Allis was an early member of the Nebraska Historical Society.
Alvord, Henry Jones
Henry Jones Alvord was a physician who moved to Michigan. He was elected to the legislature and was a delegate to the Michigan state constitutional convention in 1850. Alvord was also a charter member of Lafayette Lodge #19 of Freemasons in Washington, DC.
Nathaniel Anderson was reimbursed $200 dollars "to defray the expenses of the treaty" he signed in 1831.
Peter Anderson worked felling logs for a saw mill in Tacoma, Washington.
Early in his career, Robert Anderson worked as a surveyor. Before the Revolution, he moved to South Carolina and settled near close friend Andrew Pickens. Anderson joined the army in 1775, and fought in numerous battles including Ninety Six, Cowpens, and Eataw Springs. In 1782, he accompanied Andrew Pickens on an expedition to burn Indian towns on Oconee River. After the Revolution, Anderson was granted 460 acres of bounty lands, and acquired a total of 2,100 acres. From the years 1791 to 1784, and 1801 to 1802, he served as a member of the South Carolina legislature representing Pendleton District. Near the end of his life, he was made brigadier general of state militia.
Anderson, William Preston
William Preston Anderson was living in Franklin, Tennessee in 1800, when he was appointed US attorney for western Tennessee. By 1806 he was appointed surveyor for the 2nd Tennessee Surveyor's District, a key position in determining land titles. In 1808 he was surveyor for Warren County. At the start of the War of 1812, Anderson was named a colonel in the 24th US Infantry at Fort Meigs. At the end of the War (1815) he was a member of Andrew Jackson's staff in Pensacola, Florida. He returned to Florida in 1818 as part of the provisional government there. While in the government, he purchased and speculated in Pensacola-area land. He also engaged in land speculation in Tennessee and Alabama with Andrew Jackson, James Jackson, John Coffee and Leroy Pope. With Pope and James Jackson, Anderson founded Hunstville, Alabama (originally called Twickenham). Anderson was the owner of Crazy Hope Farm plantation and, with James Jackson, sold a race track to Andrew Jackson.
Peter Andre was appointed a government interpreter in May of 1838 at a salary of three hundred dollars per annum (roughly $8,000 today).
Andrews, Timothy Patrick
Timothy Patrick Andrews gave assistance to a Commodore Barney at a battle near his home during the War of 1812, and joined a District of Columbia volunteer company. He became a regular army officer, and in 1826, was sent to investigate the Treaty of Indian Springs from the previous year, finding that the Creek signatories to the treaty had not been authorized by their people to sign the treaty. Andrews was breveted a brigadier general during the US War with Mexico. During the Civil War, Andrews served as a lieutenant-colonel and chief paymaster for Major-General Henry W. Halleck and later became the Army's Paymaster General. He retired in 1864. During the Civil War, Andrews' son, Richard Snowden Andrews, served as a lieutenant colonel for the Confederacy.
For information on Albert Applegate's family connections, see his family tree (in "more families") using the link below.
Lindsey Applegate served as a volunteer in the Black Hawk War under General Whitesides. In 1843, he moved with his family to Oregon. He became served a special Indian Agent under Joel Palmer in 1850, and three years later commanded a company of volunteers in the Rogue River Indian War. In 1859, he purchased a toll road from Northern California to Southern California. Applegate became the captain of a volunteer (vigilante) company "to protect incoming emigrants" in 1861, and the next year served as a local legislator. In 1864, Applegate was the interpreter for the Klamath-Modoc Indian Treaty, and served as a sub-agent until 1869. For information on his family connections, see his family tree (in "more families") using the link below.
Matthew Arbuckle was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Third Infantry Regiment in 1799 and advanced to the rank of major by 1812. He was assigned to posts in the South during the War of 1812 and served under Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. He remained under Jackson's command during the First Seminole War in Southern Georgia in 1817. In 1820 Arbuckle was promoted to colonel and the next year, as commander of the Seventh Infantry Regiment, led troops to reinforce Fort Smith on the Arkansas River. In 1824 he established Cantonments (later Forts) Gibson and Towson. His command at Fort Gibson coincided with a period of tension between western and recently-relocated Indigenous nations. In 1830 he was breveted a major general. In 1834, Arbuckle was replaced as regional commander by General Henry Leavenworth, and returned to Virginia, but when Leavenworth suddenly died he returned to Fort Gibson. In 1841, Arbuckle was transfered to Baton Rouge, where he headed a military district until 1848, when he was reassigned to Fort Smith as commander of the newly created Seventh Military District. In 1849, his troops accompanied gold seekers bound for California. After being briefly relieved of command when rival Zachary Taylor became President, he was reinstated as commander of Fort Smith and head of the Seventh Military District. Arbuckle was a Master Mason of the Freemasons. During preparations to accompany another expedition to California, he died in a cholera epidemic.
John Archer graduated from West Point in 1826, and served at Fort Gibson for the next year, where he helped open a military road to Little Rock, Arkansas. Over the next seven years he was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; posts in Louisiana; and at Fort Towson. He resigned with the rank of lieutenant in 1834. Archer then worked as a lumber merchant with his father-in-law in Port Deposit, Maryland, but the business failed in 1845. In 1846, he taught school in Corpus Christi, Texas, and during the Civil War, he was a captain in the Confederate Army. After the War, Anderson practiced law and was elected to a judgeship where he served until 1884.
Armstrong, Francis Wells
Francis W. Armstrong joined the army from Tennessee during the War of 1812. In 1817 he "entered into business in Mobile," Alabama. He may have been the inventor of the Derringer pistol. In 1831 Secretary of War Lewis Cass, looking for support for Andrew Jackson in Tennessee, appointed Armstrong to conduct a census of Choctaw people in preparation for their removal; he was appointed Agent to the Choctaw West of the Mississippi later that year and moved to a reservation near Fort Smith. In 1832 he was also appointed Agent for Choctaw Removal, a process marked by a cholera epidemic along the route from Tennessee to Indian Territory. In 1833 Armstrong's family moved to Fort Smith; that year he sent a letter to Lewis Cass, asking for compensation and reimbursement for hardships faced while working on Indian relocation. With a reorganization of the the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1834, Armstrong was appointed acting superintendant of Indian affairs in the Western Territory. He died in 1835 and was succeeded as agent by his brother William.
A John S. Armstrong (probable signer) moved from Virginia to Ohio after 1800. In 1818 he "came up" with his wife and children from Greenville to St. Marys (10 miles from where the 1831 treaty with the Shawnee was signed). He was engaged in boat building and in shipping between St. Marys and Fort Wayne, Indiana. Armstrong was one of the first white settlers to acquire land in the area and became a local judge.
Armstrong, Moses Kimball
Moses Armstrong was trained as a mathematician at Huron Institute and at Western Reserve College, in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1850, he moved to Iowa and engaged in land surveys. He moved to Minnesota Territory in 1852, and four years later was elected surveyor of Mower County. In 1858, Armstrong was assigned to survey lands in Watanwan County, then moved to Yankton in Dakota Territory and surveyed town sites. Armstrong became a member of the Dakota territorial house of representatives in 1861, and served in the territorial legislature at times until 1869. Armstrong authored Early History of Dakota Territory and Empire Builders of the West. He was also an early partner in the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1862 and a member of the Minnesota Historical Society. He became the editor of the Dakota Union newspaper in 1864, and was also appointed clerk of the supreme court. In 1865, he was appointed treasurer of Dakota Territory and in 1867 acted as secretary of an "Indian peace commission." Armstrong established the great meridian and standard lines for United States surveys in southern Dakota and in the northern Red River Valley. He was elected as a Democrat to US Congress from 1871 to 1875; while in Congress,he received a charter to start the first National Bank in Yankton, and became its president. By 1877, Armstrong was appointed land agent for a railroad and moved to St. James in Watonwan County, Minnesota, where he established a bank and engaged in the real estate business (as one of the largest landowners in the county). In 1893, however, he declared bankruptcy.
William Armstrong took part in the Battle of New Orleans in 1814. From 1829 to 1833, he was mayor of Nashville, Tennessee. In 1835, Andrew Jackson appointed Armstrong an agent to the Choctaw and Acting Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Western Territory. He was made permanent Supervisor in 1839, and also named a disbursing agent; in this position, he oversaw removal of the Choctaw from east of the Mississippi. Armstrong was also a plantation owner.
William Armstrong enlisted in a rifle regiment in 1813, and was promoted to captain in 1818. He transferred to the Sixth Infantry in 1821 where he commanded Company A.
Arndt, Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton Arndt moved with his parents to Green Bay, Wisconsin and worked with his father in various industries. He was a sutler's clerk at the front during the US War with Mexico, during which he died of yellow fever. He was the son of treaty signer John Penn Arndt.
Arndt, John Penn
During the 1780s, John Penn Arndt was raised at his grandparent's home in Northampton County, Pennsylvania. He gained mercantile experience in family businesses in Easton in the 1790s, and in 1797, he came to Wilkes-Barre where he opened trade to Easton. That same year, he opened a tavern/inn not far from a ferry landing, and later constructed a general store and warehouse there. In 1801, he established a boat yard named Arndt and Arndt with his father, launching the John Franklin in 1804, which engaged in ocean traffic from Baltimore. In 1804, after his father's death, he took full control of their milling, lumbering, merchandising, and other businesses, including the building of Durham boats for the navigation of the Susquehanna. From 1815 to 1816, Arndt lost heavily due to the industrial and financial crisis following the War of 1812. In 1820, he moved to Buffalo, New York, and in 1822, he moved to Mackinac Island in Michigan, where he engaged in buying and shipping fish and furs. In 1824, he moved to Green Bay, Wisconsin, where he built the first saw mill and the first sail vessel ever built west of Lake Michigan. He eventually owned several saw mills, held a contract to supply Fort Howard with beef, and claimed to have been the first person to export lumber from Green Bay. In 1835, Arndt became a co-owner of Fox River Hydraulic Company (also operated as the Bank of Fox River), which established towns including Two Rivers and De Pere; other owners of the town sites included treaty signers John Lawe, Morgan L. Martin, George Boyd, Ebenezer Childs, and James Doty. Arndt was a large stockholder in the Fond du Lac Company, which was a land speculation venture that incorporated the town of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, and in about 1837 he incorporated the town of Memee, Wisconsin. He was elected a representative in the first Territorial Council in 1836.
Abraham Ash was captured by the Shawnee in 1782 in a raid on Kinchloe’s (Polk’s) Station, which was later called Burnt Station. He later became an interpreter for William Henry Harrison, and his Potawatomi wife reported to Harrison on British influence among the Potawatomi in 1810.
After schooling, Edward Ashmun moved to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and joined his father Samuel in the fishing industry. He was in charge of their enterprise on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northeast Wisconsin, and spoke French and several languages of local Indian tribes. Ashmun served as Postmaster of Sault de Ste. Marie, and also as justice of the peace, a government interpreter, a lighthouse keeper at White Fish Point, and Lake Superior customs inspector. He was also elected and served as sheriff of Chippewa County for two terms, and "aided many settlers in finding homes" in the area (using a familiarity with the locality that he gained from trading). Ashman may have been the recipient of land scrip as part of a Lake Superior Ojibwe treaty. This scrip was involved in a plot by Indian agent Luther E. Webb to convert scrip into cash. Ashman was a member of the Cass/Kinzie kinship group.
In 1818, Samuel Ashmun arrived in the Lake Superior region as a clerk for the American Fur Company. He kept this position for five years along with John H. Fairbanks (1798-1880), who was also from Champlain. Ashman worked for a time in William Morrison's Fond du Lac Department of the AFC, wintering at Leech Lake. He was also stationed at various times at Fond du Lac, Folle Avoine & Lac du Flambeau Departments of the American Fur Company. By 1851, Ashmun was living at Sault Ste. Marie.
Atchison, George W.
George W. Atchison moved with his father from Pennsylvania to Illinois country in the late 1700s. They were "among the earliest American settlers of Illinois." George was a lieutenant in the St. Clair County, Illinois militia in 1795, and a major in 1802. He was a judge in 1798, and became a steamboat builder and pilot on the Mississippi, coming to reside in St. Louis, Missouri. Atchison was the brother-in-law of both Pierre Chouteau and Pierre Menard, so a member of the Chouteau/Clark kinship group.
Henry Atkinson was the son of a prominent landholding family in North Carolina. At 18, he inherited one thousand acres of Caswell County, and later helped establish a free school, of which he became the clerk and treasurer. After failing to establish a small store, he entered the army in 1808 as a captain of the 3rd Infantry. He saw limited action in the War of 1812, yet became one of the senior commanders in the West due to his administrative talents. Before the war was over, he was promoted to colonel and inspector general in the Ninth Military District. In 1819 Atkinson was ordered by John C. Calhoun to lead a military expedition in the West. Intended to reach the Yellowstone River, the expedition progressed only as far as Council Bluffs near Omaha. There, Atkinson established the first of three Fort Atkinsons. In 1825, he led another major expedition from St. Louis to the Yellowstone River, and negotiated twelve treaties with Indigenous nations. That expedition used paddle wheel keelboats for the first time on a military venture. The co-leader of the expedition was Indian Agent Benjamin O'Fallon; the two leaders disagreed over policy; at one point they tried to stab each other with a knife and a fork. In 1838, President Martin Van Buren offered him the governorship of the new Iowa Terriroty, but Atkinson declined without giving a reason. He remained in the military until dying of dysentery in 1842.
Atlee, Samuel John
In 1745, Samuel John Atlee's widowed mother -- who was a bridesmaid to the Queen of England -- moved the family to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he eventually studied law. He participated in the Forbes Expedition during the "French and Indian" War, and was taken prisoner once by the French and once by the Indians. Atlee then farmed until the outbreak of the Revolution, when he was elected head of the Lancaster militia, and in 1778, he was captured by the British. After his release later that year, he was elected to Congress, serving until 1782. As a member of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania beginning in 1783, he negotiated treaties with the Six Nations. He died of "a cold" contracted at a treaty. He was a member of the Society of the Cincinnatti.
Reuben Atwater was the Secretary of Michigan Territory from 1808 to 1814, and was at the same time collector for the port of Detroit. He directed the 1810 census of Michigan Territory, and acted as land commissioner until 1811. When William Hull was absent from the Territory in 1811 and 1812, Atwater served as acting governor. Atwater eventually was replaced as Secretary because of his "disinclination" to return to the territory after the War of 1812. Attwater Street in Detroit was named after him.
Caleb Atwater graduated from Williams College in 1804. He established an academy for women in New York before becoming a Presbyterian minister, but illness caused him to leave the ministry. After studying law and opening a practice, he was "ruined by disastrous business investments" and moved to Circleville, Ohio in 1815. In the 1820s, Atwater was elected to the state legislature and advocated for a state educational system. In 1829, he published a study of burial mounds in Ohio, proposing that an early race superior to the local Indigenous people had built them. In 1829, he was appointed commissioner to negotiate a Wisconsin treaty, and in 1838, he wrote a history of the State of Ohio, but was accused of plagiarism.
Atwood, Othneil T.
Othniel T. Atwood was a lawyer who co-founded the Carthage (New York) Republican newspaper in 1860. In 1865, he sold the paper and became a clerk in the Treasury Department. He was a lawyer and insurance agent in Weedsport, New York in 1867.
Peter Audrain immigrated to America from France at an early age, and settled in Pennsylvania. During the War of 1812, he was commissioned captain of a volunteer militia unit, and was afterwardappointed colonel in the militia. He moved with his family to Missouri in 1816, where he eventually settled in St. Charles County. Audrain built a distillery and a mill there. His mill was powered by up to twenty bulls, and so was generally refered to as "Bull's Hell Mill" by local community members. In 1830, Audrain was elected a member of the legislature and served up until his death.
Augur, Christopher Colon
Christopher Colon Augur graduated from West Point in 1843. He served as aide-de-camp to several generals during the Mexican War and was a member of the Aztec Club of 1847. Augur was promoted to captain in 1852, and participated in military campaigns against Northwestern Indigenous peoples in 1856. At the beginning of the Civil War he was placed briefly in charge of cadets at West Point. He was wounded while serving in the field in 1862. Augur served on a military court that investigated the surrender of Harper’s Ferry, and subsequently was placed in charge of various Departments of the Army in Washington, Texas, the Gulf, and the South. When Lincoln was assassinated in April of 1865, Augur was one of the men who escorted Lincoln’s body from the Peterson House to the White House. In 1886, Augur was “shot and dangerously wounded by a Negro whom he attempted to chastise for using coarse language.”
Aunt, J. E.
Babbitt, Francis C.
Francis C. Babbitt was notable in the early settlement of Isabella, Michigan. He participated in a mercantile business as a partner of John Eastman and later D. H. Nelson. He continued in business until his death in 1875 or 1876. For information on his family connections, see his family tree (in "more families") using the link below.
A grandson of Benjamin Franklin, Richard Bache married the sister of US Vice President George Dallas in 1804. During the War of 1812, he was a captain in the Franklin Flying Artillery. He was an infantry captain with General Winfield Scott during the Black Hawk War, and later served in the US Navy. In 1836, Bache abandoned his family and moved to Texas, where he served in the Texas Navy and the Louisiana Independent Volunteers. Bache was a member of the Grand Lodge of Texas Freemasons by 1838, and worked as a clerk for the republic's navy department and legislature. After moving to Galveston in 1842, he became a county justice of the peace. Bache was the only member of the Texas Convention of 1845 to vote against US annexation.
Electus Backus began his military career as a 2nd lieutenant in 1824. During the 1830s he was an aide-de-camp to General Brady, and fought in Florida from 1833 to 1840. After postings in the midwest (including Fort Snelling and Jefferson Barracks), he served in the US War with Mexico, where he was breveted a major and joined the Aztec Club of 1847. Backus helped construct Fort Defiance in 1851. He commanded a column in battle against the Navajo in 1858. Backus led his troops out of Texas at the start of the Civil War, but poor health kept him stationed in Detroit for the remainder of the conflict.
Baco, Franco Tomas
Franco Tomas Baca was a trader on the Santa Fe Trail.
Badger, John E.
John E. Badger was the father of Kickapoo Indian agent William Badger. The Badger family was involved in land fraud and promoting the interests of railroads with Charles B. Keith.
John Badollet received money from fellow Geneva townsman Albert Gallatin to emigrate to Pennsylvania in 1776. The two shared a farm and ran a store from 1786 to 1788. By 1801 Gallatin was Secretary of the Treasury, and secured for Badollet an appointment as surveyor of roads north of the Ohio River. In 1803, Badollet was made register of the land office in Vincennes, Indiana Territory, a job he kept until 1836. He was also appointed a commissioner to adjust local land grants. Over the course of his tenure, Badollet became a bitter enemy of William Henry Harrison, particularly over the issue of Harrison's support of slavery in the territory, and wrote to Gallatin frequently to level charges of corruption against Harrison. Badollet was a friend of trader and treaty signer Joseph Maria Francesco Vigo, and with him became a trustee of Vincennes University.
Bahan, Daniel J.
More than one David Bailey may have operated near the Mississippi River in the first decades of the 1800s. A Colonel David Bailey moved to Monroe County, Missouri, not far from Illinois, in 1803. He was the first sheriff and a collector of county and state taxes, and served as a captain of rangers in the War of 1812. This may be the same "Colonel David Bailey" who in the 1830s commanded an Illinois ranger unit that shot Black Hawk emissaries who were carrying truce flags; this Bailey interacted with O'Fallons and Hempsteads who were associates of William Clark. Another, or possibly the same, “Colonel David Bailey” served as “agent for the Government for the removal of the Seneca from Ohio to the Indian Territory” at the end of the Black Hawk War. He stayed with the Seneca in 1832 in Lincoln County, Missouri on the Illinois border. And a David Bailey secured a job as farm adviser to the Osage as a provision in a treaty of 1825. This Bailey began his job as “agriculturalist” for the Osage on Sept. 4, 1827, as noted in Clark's diary.
Goddard Bailey was a government clerk assigned as a "special agent" to inspect reservations in California in 1858. He wrote admiringly of the condition of Indigenous people on those reservations as similar to that of enslaved people on Southern Plantations. He was then assigned to inspect the Butterfield Overland Mail Company, returning as far as St. Louis on government-subsidized company stage coaches. In 1859, the signature of "G. Bailey" was affixed to a treaty in Kansas, Goddard Bailey was in charge of the Indian Trust Fund, which held $2.5 million dollars in principle from which all annuity payments to Indigenous nations were to be paid. Bailey fronted a total of $870,000 from this fund to Russell and Company. was soon illegally fronting a total of $870,000 from this fund to Russell and Company. (A competitor of the Butterfield Overland Mail Company, Russell had a government contract to deliver all goods to western forts and was starting the Pony Express.) Bailey confessed to the crime in 1861 but "the indictments were lifted" when the Civil War began.
Bailey, Joseph H.
Joseph H. Bailey was a surgeon at Fort Smith, Arkansas. He was criticized for “spending much of his time and energy on his private practice, principally in caring for Indians, thereby neglecting both his duties at the fort and his own health." In 1837, he owned approximately 250 acres that he offered to the government for $10,000 to build a new fort. He was a member of the Fort Smith Masonic lodge.
Bailey, N. B.
N. B. Bailey was a trader in Vincennes from 1815 to 1817, and supplied Curtis Gilbert in the “Indian trade” near Fort Harrison.
Bailey, R. S.
Paul Baillio was a subfactor (assistant government trader) at Chickasaw Bluffs in 1820, when he was appointed to a similar position in Kansas as a subordinate to George Sibley. In 1822, the US closed its factory in Kansas (per a treaty in August). Sibley, Baillio, and Lilburn Boggs (later governor of Missouri) formed a partnership and, buying up the government supplies at Fort Osage, continued to trade there. In 1823, Baillio briefly opened a trading post on the Neosho River, and was involved in the Santa Fe trade as early as 1824. In 1825, Sibley was hired to mark a road from Missouri to New Mexico, and Baillio served as the expedition guide and interpreter. From 1825 Baillio formed business partnerships with traders who included Sibley (dealing in wool in Taos), Richard Campbell and Ceran St. Vrain. Baillio may have relocated permanently to New Mexico after 1827.
Alexis Bailly was the son of a Northwest Fur Company trader, Joseph Bailly. Educated in Montreal, he eventually opened a fur post at Prairie du Chien. In 1821, he drove a herd of cattle from the mouth of the Minnesota River to the Selkirk Colony in Canada, returning the next year to establish a post at present-day Mendota, Minnesota. In 1826, his trading post was raided by military forces for illegal sales of liquor. Bailly later established trading posts in Cannon Falls and Wabasha. In 1849, he was a member of the first Minnesota Territorial Legislature, and purchased the Red Wing Sentinel, whose press and materials were used to start the Dakota Weekly Journal in Hastings. Later in life, Bailly opened a trading post at Prairie Du Chien, and was a co-founder of the Hastings, Minnesota River and Red River of the North Railroad Company. Bailly and several associates were granted rights to establish a ferry crossing the Minnesota River at Hastings in 1856. Bailly was a member of the Cass/Kinzie kinship group.
Henry Bainbridge was appointed to West Point from Massachusetts, and graduated in 1821. He served as lieutenant on frontier duty, becaming a captain on June 15, 1836. He served in the first Seminole War in Florida, in the military occupation of Texas, and in the US War with Mexico. Bainbridge was brevetted major in 1846 and made a major in the 7th infantry in 1847, and fought in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco and was severely wounded in the Battle of Monterey. He was breveted a lieutenant-colonel for gallant conduct, and commended for his action in the assault and capture of Mexico City, where he joined the Aztec Club of 1847. At some point, Bainbridge "leased" Dred Scott for three years from his sister-in-law, Irene Emerson. In 1849 and 1850, he served in the Seminole War, and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel on June 11, 1851. He served in Texas until his death on board the steamer Louisiana, which was burned in Galveston Bay. He was a member of the Chouteau/Clark kinship group.
Baird, Henry S.
Henry S. Baird studied law in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania and Cleveland, Ohio. In 1822 he settled in Mackinaw, Michigan, where he opened a school. In 1823, he was admitted to the practice of law, and the next year moved to Green Bay. He served as a quartermaster in the Black Hawk War. In 1836, Baird was elected as a member of the first legislative council of the territory of Wisconsin, and co-founded the Fond du Lac Company which incorporated the town of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. From 1836 to 1839, he was the first attorney-general of the territory. He also served as the vice-president of the state historical society in 1862. Baird was mayor of Green Bay and served as Draft Commissioner for Brown County during the Civil War. He supervised the sale of the Astor property in Brown County from 1862 until his death, and also served as agent in other real estate transactions. In 1874, he was one of the organizers of the Kellogg National Bank in Green Bay. Baird was also an early leader of Freemasons in Wisconsin, and served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin in 1856 and 1857.
Baird, Spruce McCoy
Spruce McCoy Baird taught school in Kentucky before moving to Texas. He lived in Woodville and San Augustine, then opened a law practice at Nacogdoches. In 1848, Baird was appointed judge of the newly established Santa Fe County, east of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico. After losing his job when Texas relinquished territorial claims in the Compromise of 1850, Baird stayed in New Mexico as a lawyer. In 1852, he was appointed Indian agent to the Navajos, and in 1860, he was appointed attorney general of New Mexico, but was forced to leave the state because of his sympathy with the Confederacy a year later. Baird was indicted for high treason and his property was confiscated in 1862 and he returned to Texas, where he commanded the Fourth Regiment of the Arizona Brigade for the Confederacy, a unit that included “draft evaders, deserters, and other riff-raff." In 1864, he left the brigade in a dispute over who would command it. Afterwards he was given authority to raise a command of 100 men to harass Union supply trains on the Santa Fe Trail; the group grew to a regiment that included “some of Quantrill’s and Anderson’s bushwhackers”. His regiment mutinied when ordered to leave Gainesville, and was later captured by Confederate forces. Baird was paroled in July 1865 and in 1867 moved to Trinidad, Colorado, where he opened a law office.
Lafayette Balch sailed around Cape Horn in the Sacramento, a ship owned by his father, in about 1849, and began shipping timber from Washington to San Francisco during the gold rush. In 1850, he arrived by ship at the site of Olympia, Washington, intending to buy land and open a store there. His plans were frustrated by Edmund Sylvestre, who had already founded Olympia and did not want competition for his own store. In response, Balch shipped supplies to Puget Sound and built his store there, becoming the founder of the city of Steilacoom. He continued to build his successful business by shipping timber, fish, and hides to San Francisco. The timber he purchased at 8 cents per foot could be sold in San Francisco at a dollar per foot. Balch served in the first territorial legislature.
Balcombe, St. Andre Durand
St. Andre Durand Balcombe served as a post office clerk under his father in Minnesota from 1841 to 1845. From 1845 to 1849 he was employed in drug stores, starting with one owned by Dr. Gill in Battle Creek, Michigan. He moved to Winona, Minnesota in 1854 where he was elected to the territorial legislature. In 1857, Balcombe was a regent of the University of Minnesota and a member of first State house of representatives. He was appointed agent for the Winnebago in Minnesota in 1861, and in 1865 he moved to Omaha and was appointed agent for the Winnebago in Dakota Territory. He was removed from this position in November for “refusing to swear by the accidental President” (Andrew Johnson). In 1866 he purchased the Omaha Republican newspaper, where he was the editor until 1871 and co-owner until 1876. Balcombe was a notable abolitionist and a supporter of "negro suffrage."
Baldwin, A. G.
A. G. Baldwin was educated at West Point and rose to the rank of lieutenant, serving at Fort Towson in Arkansas. "His constitution, naturally delicate, was injured by study."
An Ebenezer Baldwin was a co-organizer of the Minnesota Air Line Railroad Company in 1857.
Ballard, Thomas B.
The identity of this signer is clouded by the legend of an Antoine Barada, born 1807, who became a Paul Bunyan-like folk figure (lifting an 1,800 pound stone, for instance). Some accounts state that this is the signer of a treaty with the Kansa in 1815, at the age of eight; one questionable "autobiographical" piece does state that he entered the fur trade at age nine, while living with his aunt in St. Louis for several years (after captivity among "the Sioux"). This Barada traded among the Kansa later in life. Other sources suggest the signer was Antoine's father Michael, who signed several treaties between 1825 and 1830 as Burdeau or Berda. A more likely candidate for the signature is Antoine Barada, Jr., son of one of the earliest settlers in St. Louis, who may have married Elizabeth Tesson in 1796 and moved to St. Charles, Missouri the next year; served on a St. Louis grand jury in 1809; and from Carondelet, Missouri advertised for a lost horse in 1815.
Barbeau, Peter B.
Peter B. Barbeau arrived in Sault St. Marie in 1817 in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. After switching allegiances to the American Fur Company and moving to Baraboo, Wisconsin, he returned to Sault St. Marie in 1834. Barbeau became a county commissioner in 1838, and worked for the AFC until 1842. He then opened a general store and trading post, selling goods to miners in the 1840s and 1850s. He was elected to the state legislature in 1842 and became the Register of Deeds in 1845. A year later, he secured a county judgeship and later was elected village president. Barbeau organized an extensive fishery on Lake Superior, and also acquired extensive holdings of property in the Upper Peninsula, and operated trading posts at Grand Marais and LaPointe on Lake Superior.
In 1824, Indian trader David Barber became subagent for the Osage in Arkansas. With Matthew Arbuckle, Barber helped create the Osage National Council "as a mode of controlling the Osages in anticipation of moving eastern Indians onto their ceded land."
Bradford Barbie (Barbey), was one of 18 "wagon hands" selected by G. C. Sibley to accompany his 1825 survey of the Santa Fe Road.
Member of a prominent Virginia/Kentucky family, James Barbour was admitted to the bar in 1794, and from 1809 to 1812, served in the Virginia House of Delegates. During the War of 1812, Barbour formed a Virginia militia unit and covered expenses with his own money. He served as governor of Virginia after the death of George William Smith, but left that position after being elected to the US Senate, where he served until 1825. From 1825 to 1828, Barbour served as Secretary of War, and from 1828 to 1829, as the US Minister to Great Britain. Barbour was president of the Virginia Agricultural Society and founded the Orange County Humane Society.
Before the Revolution, Timothy Barnard became the British principle temporary agent for Indian affairs south of the Ohio, and became the "first white settler" on the future site of Macon County, Georgia. He blazed Barnard's Paths, which were early trails from the Chattahoochee River to St. Mary's and St. Augustine. After the Revolution, Barnard became an assistant and interpreter for US Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins, and also operated a trading post on the Flint River. Barnard's wife and two sons were granted extensive land reserves in western Georgia.
Barnard Jr., John
Ellis Barnes claimed land on Bellingham Bay in Washington prior to 1854, though the land he registered was on the Lummi Reservation. He was sheriff of Whatcom County in 1855, when he enlisted a posse to steal 35 sheep from the San Juan Islands in Vancouver Bay, during a US-British boundary dispute that led to the 1859 Pig War.
Barnes, John B.
John B. Barnes was commissioned as a lieutenant from the state of Maryland in 1801. In 1805, he was a 1st lieutenant in an artillery regiment stationed at Fort Johnson.
Norman Barnes ran mail routes through the upper Midwest.
Barnett, A. G.
In 1855, A. G. Barnett was one of the organizers of Marshal County, Kansas. He was also a co-founder of Waterville and of LaPorte, where he was postmaster from 1858 to 1859. With Edward Wolcott, Barnett was appointed to take a census of Kansa Indians in preparation for allotting their land in 1862. By 1873, he was listed in the business directory for Franklin County, Kansas. Seven years later, he was engaged in real estate and was a land agent for the Kansas City, Lawrence, and Southern Kansas Railroad and the Missouri Pacific Railroad.
Barnett, W. D.
When William D. Barnett was 17 years old he moved with his parents to Alton, Illinois. In 1839, he began studying medicine under his brother-in-law at Rock River, Illinois and attended medical lectures in St. Louis. The next year, he arrived at Fort Leavenworth and worked as a hospital steward. Dr. Barnett was the "first white settler" of Muscotah, Kansas where he was appointed justice of the peace. During the Bleeding Kansas Conflict, he served as a representative in the Free State Legislature. In 1857, he was elected a commissioner of Atchison County, Kansas, and in 1866, elected the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Jackson County. Outside of politics, he ran a grist mill and saw mill, engaged in farming, and served as Vice President of the Jackson County branch of the Kansas Horticultural Society.
Antoine Barraque served in the French army under Napoleon in the battles of Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena, Lodi, and Moscow before arriving in Arkansas in 1816. He established the settlement that became New Gascony the following year and became connected to the Quapaw nation through marriage. At one point, while encroaching on Osage land, his hunting party was attacked and $4,000 worth of goods were destroyed. In 1824, Barraque was appointed sub-agent for the Quapaw. In 1826, after a treaty in which the Quapaw ceded a million acres, Barraque supervised their migration. He quarreled with George Gray, Indian agent for Red River region, over the latter’s distribution of whiskey to the Quapaw. Gray was later accused by Governor Izzard of “gross misconduct” resulting in the starvation of Indians, but Gray attributed the “deprivation” of the Quapaw to Barraque’s mismanagement. Barraque maintained a cotton plantation and in 1832 became the first postmaster of New Gascony.
Barrett, Oliver D.
Oliver D. Barrett graduated from the University of Vermont. He moved to Illinois as a young man, and became a friend of Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him to the patent office. He then practiced law in Washington, DC from the 1860s to the turn of the century. He was a successful criminal lawyer, “having defended as high as twenty murderers … and never permitting a man to be hung;" he later focused on corporate law. For twenty years, Barrett was a law partner of General Benjamin F. Butler and controlled Butler’s estate after Butler’s death. In 1859, “he conceived the idea of buying all the land at The [Niagara] Falls, so as to control the water power in enterprises near Niagara Falls." Barrett was a member of the Freemasons.
Joseph Barron "knew all the dialects of the Indians of the Wabash Valley" and worked as an interpreter for William Henry Harrison. He settled at Vincennes as early as 1790, and between 1803 and 1836 he was an official interpreter for 22 treaties. In 1840, Samuel Milroy said of Barron that "he will tell his own story and not that of those for whom he interprets." When land containing a salt spring was ceded in 1819 he led an expedition to claim the spring on the very day that the treaty was signed. (A companion made the claim first and "cheated" Barron out of the property.) Barron received an unauthorized payment of $8,000 at the 1836 Potawatomi annuity distribution, a factor leading to a riot by Potawatomi and rival traders. In 1838, he accompanied a group of Potawatomi on their removal to the west. In 1839-1840, he was accused by Potawatomi leader Pash Po of confiscating goods intended to support emigration.
1 - 100